1So here is what I ask. Did God turn his back on his people? Not at all! I myself belong to Israel. I am one of Abraham’s children. I am from the tribe of Benjamin.2God didn’t turn his back on his people. After all, he chose them. Don’t you know what Scripture says about Elijah? He complained to God about Israel.3He said, ‘Lord, they have killed your prophets. They have torn down your altars. I’m the only one left. And they are trying to kill me.’ (1Ki 19:10; 1Ki 19:14)4How did God answer him? God said, ‘I have kept 7,000 people for myself. They have not bowed down to Baal.’ (1Ki 19:18)5Some are also faithful today. They have been chosen by God’s grace.6And if they are chosen by grace, then they can’t work for it. If that were true, grace wouldn’t be grace anymore.7What should we say then? The people of Israel did not receive what they wanted so badly. Those Israelites who were chosen did receive it. But the rest of the people were made stubborn.8It is written, ‘God made it hard for them to understand. He gave them eyes that could not see. He gave them ears that could not hear. And they are still like that today.’ (De 29:4; Isa 29:10)9David says, ‘Let their feast be a trap and a snare. Let them trip and fall. Let them get what’s coming to them.10Let their eyes grow dark so they can’t see. Let their backs be bent for ever.’ (Ps 69:22; Ps 69:23)
Two kinds of olive branches
11Again, here is what I ask. The Israelites didn’t trip and fall once and for all time, did they? Not at all! Because Israel sinned, the Gentiles can be saved. That will make Israel jealous of them.12Israel’s sin brought riches to the world. Their loss brings riches to the Gentiles. So then what greater riches will come when all Israel turns to God!13I am talking to you who are not Jews. I am the apostle to the Gentiles. So I take pride in the work I do for God and others.14I hope somehow to stir up my own people to want what you have. Perhaps I can save some of them.15When they were not accepted, it became possible for the whole world to be brought back to God. So what will happen when they are accepted? It will be like life from the dead.16The first handful of dough that is offered is holy. This makes all of the dough holy. If the root is holy, so are the branches.17Some of the natural branches have been broken off. You are a wild olive branch. But you have been joined to the tree with the other branches. Now you enjoy the life-giving sap of the olive tree root.18So don’t think you are better than the other branches. Remember, you don’t give life to the root. The root gives life to you.19You will say, ‘Some branches were broken off so that I could be joined to the tree.’20That’s true. But they were broken off because they didn’t believe. You stand only because you do believe. So don’t be proud, but tremble.21God didn’t spare the natural branches. He won’t spare you either.22Think about how kind God is! Also think about how firm he is! He was hard on those who stopped following him. But he is kind to you. So you must continue to live in his kindness. If you don’t, you also will be cut off.23If the people of Israel do not continue in their unbelief, they will again be joined to the tree. God is able to join them to the tree again.24After all, weren’t you cut from a wild olive tree? Weren’t you joined to an olive tree that was taken care of? And wasn’t that the opposite of how things should be done? How much more easily will the natural branches be joined to their own olive tree!
All Israel will be saved
25Brothers and sisters, here is a mystery I want you to understand. It will keep you from being proud. Part of Israel has refused to obey God. That will continue until the full number of Gentiles has entered God’s kingdom.26In this way all Israel will be saved. It is written, ‘The God who saves will come from Mount Zion. He will remove sin from Jacob’s family.27Here is my covenant with them. I will take away their sins.’ (Isa 27:9; Isa 59:20; Isa 59:21; Jer 31:33; Jer 31:34)28As far as the good news is concerned, the people of Israel are enemies. This is for your good. But as far as God’s choice is concerned, the people of Israel are loved. This is because of God’s promises to the founders of our nation.29God does not take back his gifts. He does not change his mind about those he has chosen.30At one time you did not obey God. But now you have received mercy because Israel did not obey.31In the same way, Israel has not been obeying God. But now they receive mercy because of God’s mercy to you.32God has found everyone guilty of not obeying him. So now he can have mercy on everyone.
Praise to God
33How very rich are God’s wisdom and knowledge! How he judges is more than we can understand! The way he deals with people is more than we can know!34‘Who can ever know what the Lord is thinking? Or who can ever give him advice?’ (Isa 40:13)35‘Has anyone ever given anything to God, so that God has to pay them back?’ (Job 41:11)36All things come from him. All things are directed by him. All things are for his praise. May God be given the glory for ever! Amen.