1. Greek Ioudaioi probably refers here to Jewish religious leaders, and others under their influence, in that time; also verses 14 (twice), 28
 made a united attack on Paul and brought him before the tribunal, (Ac 13:7; Ac 13:50; Ac 16:19)13saying, “This man is persuading people to worship God contrary to the law.” (Ac 18:15)14But when Paul was about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, “If it were a matter of wrongdoing or vicious crime, O Jews, I would have reason to accept your complaint. (Ac 13:10)15But since it is a matter of questions about words and names and your own law, see to it yourselves. I refuse to be a judge of these things.” (Ac 18:13; Ac 23:29; Ac 25:19; 1Ti 6:4; 2Ti 2:14)16And he drove them from the tribunal.17And they all seized Sosthenes, the ruler of the synagogue, and beat him in front of the tribunal. But Gallio paid no attention to any of this.
Paul Returns to Antioch
18After this, Paul stayed many days longer and then took leave of the brothers
24Now a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria, came to Ephesus. He was an eloquent man, competent in the Scriptures. (Ezr 7:6; Ac 19:1; 1Co 1:12; 1Co 3:5; 1Co 4:6; 1Co 16:12; Tit 3:13)25He had been instructed in the way of the Lord. And being fervent in spirit,
1. Or in the Spirit
 he spoke and taught accurately the things concerning Jesus, though he knew only the baptism of John. (Lu 7:29; Ac 9:2; Ac 19:3; Ro 12:11)26He began to speak boldly in the synagogue, but when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him aside and explained to him the way of God more accurately. (Mt 22:16; Ac 18:2; Ac 18:25)27And when he wished to cross to Achaia, the brothers encouraged him and wrote to the disciples to welcome him. When he arrived, he greatly helped those who through grace had believed, (Ac 11:21; Ac 11:23; Ac 15:11; Ac 18:18; Ac 19:1; 1Co 3:6; 2Co 3:1; Eph 2:8)28for he powerfully refuted the Jews in public, showing by the Scriptures that the Christ was Jesus. (Ac 18:5)