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Clean and Unclean Animals

1 And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying to them,
2 “Speak to the people of Israel, saying, These are the living things that you may eat among all the animals that are on the earth.
3 Whatever parts the hoof and is cloven-footed and chews the cud, among the animals, you may eat.
4 Nevertheless, among those that chew the cud or part the hoof, you shall not eat these: The camel, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you.
5 And the rock badger, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you.
6 And the hare, because it chews the cud but does not part the hoof, is unclean to you.
7 And the pig, because it parts the hoof and is cloven-footed but does not chew the cud, is unclean to you.
8 You shall not eat any of their flesh, and you shall not touch their carcasses; they are unclean to you.
9 “These you may eat, of all that are in the waters. Everything in the waters that has fins and scales, whether in the seas or in the rivers, you may eat.
10 But anything in the seas or the rivers that does not have fins and scales, of the swarming creatures in the waters and of the living creatures that are in the waters, is detestable to you.
11 You shall regard them as detestable; you shall not eat any of their flesh, and you shall detest their carcasses.
12 Everything in the waters that does not have fins and scales is detestable to you.
13 “And these you shall detest among the birds;1 they shall not be eaten; they are detestable: the eagle,2 the bearded vulture, the black vulture,
14 the kite, the falcon of any kind,
15 every raven of any kind,
16 the ostrich, the nighthawk, the sea gull, the hawk of any kind,
17 the little owl, the cormorant, the short-eared owl,
18 the barn owl, the tawny owl, the carrion vulture,
19 the stork, the heron of any kind, the hoopoe, and the bat.
20 “All winged insects that go on all fours are detestable to you.
21 Yet among the winged insects that go on all fours you may eat those that have jointed legs above their feet, with which to hop on the ground.
22 Of them you may eat: the locust of any kind, the bald locust of any kind, the cricket of any kind, and the grasshopper of any kind.
23 But all other winged insects that have four feet are detestable to you.
24 “And by these you shall become unclean. Whoever touches their carcass shall be unclean until the evening,
25 and whoever carries any part of their carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening.
26 Every animal that parts the hoof but is not cloven-footed or does not chew the cud is unclean to you. Everyone who touches them shall be unclean.
27 And all that walk on their paws, among the animals that go on all fours, are unclean to you. Whoever touches their carcass shall be unclean until the evening,
28 and he who carries their carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening; they are unclean to you.
29 “And these are unclean to you among the swarming things that swarm on the ground: the mole rat, the mouse, the great lizard of any kind,
30 the gecko, the monitor lizard, the lizard, the sand lizard, and the chameleon.
31 These are unclean to you among all that swarm. Whoever touches them when they are dead shall be unclean until the evening.
32 And anything on which any of them falls when they are dead shall be unclean, whether it is an article of wood or a garment or a skin or a sack, any article that is used for any purpose. It must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the evening; then it shall be clean.
33 And if any of them falls into any earthenware vessel, all that is in it shall be unclean, and you shall break it.
34 Any food in it that could be eaten, on which water comes, shall be unclean. And all drink that could be drunk from every such vessel shall be unclean.
35 And everything on which any part of their carcass falls shall be unclean. Whether oven or stove, it shall be broken in pieces. They are unclean and shall remain unclean for you.
36 Nevertheless, a spring or a cistern holding water shall be clean, but whoever touches a carcass in them shall be unclean.
37 And if any part of their carcass falls upon any seed grain that is to be sown, it is clean,
38 but if water is put on the seed and any part of their carcass falls on it, it is unclean to you.
39 “And if any animal which you may eat dies, whoever touches its carcass shall be unclean until the evening,
40 and whoever eats of its carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening. And whoever carries the carcass shall wash his clothes and be unclean until the evening.
41 “Every swarming thing that swarms on the ground is detestable; it shall not be eaten.
42 Whatever goes on its belly, and whatever goes on all fours, or whatever has many feet, any swarming thing that swarms on the ground, you shall not eat, for they are detestable.
43 You shall not make yourselves detestable with any swarming thing that swarms, and you shall not defile yourselves with them, and become unclean through them.
44 For I am the Lord your God. Consecrate yourselves therefore, and be holy, for I am holy. You shall not defile yourselves with any swarming thing that crawls on the ground.
45 For I am the Lord who brought you up out of the land of Egypt to be your God. You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.”
46 This is the law about beast and bird and every living creature that moves through the waters and every creature that swarms on the ground,
47 to make a distinction between the unclean and the clean and between the living creature that may be eaten and the living creature that may not be eaten.
1 Or things that fly; compare Genesis 1:20
2 The identity of many of these birds is uncertain

Clean and Unclean Food

1 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron,
2 “Say to the Israelites: ‘Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat:
3 You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.
4 “ ‘There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you.
5 The hyrax, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you.
6 The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you.
7 And the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you.
8 You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.
9 “ ‘Of all the creatures living in the water of the seas and the streams you may eat any that have fins and scales.
10 But all creatures in the seas or streams that do not have fins and scales—whether among all the swarming things or among all the other living creatures in the water—you are to regard as unclean.
11 And since you are to regard them as unclean, you must not eat their meat; you must regard their carcasses as unclean.
12 Anything living in the water that does not have fins and scales is to be regarded as unclean by you.
13 “ ‘These are the birds you are to regard as unclean and not eat because they are unclean: the eagle,1 the vulture, the black vulture,
14 the red kite, any kind of black kite,
15 any kind of raven,
16 the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk,
17 the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl,
18 the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey,
19 the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe and the bat.
20 “ ‘All flying insects that walk on all fours are to be regarded as unclean by you.
21 There are, however, some flying insects that walk on all fours that you may eat: those that have jointed legs for hopping on the ground.
22 Of these you may eat any kind of locust, katydid, cricket or grasshopper.
23 But all other flying insects that have four legs you are to regard as unclean.
24 “ ‘You will make yourselves unclean by these; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening.
25 Whoever picks up one of their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.
26 “ ‘Every animal that does not have a divided hoof or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean.
27 Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those that walk on their paws are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening.
28 Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. These animals are unclean for you.
29 “ ‘Of the animals that move along the ground, these are unclean for you: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard,
30 the gecko, the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink and the chameleon.
31 Of all those that move along the ground, these are unclean for you. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean till evening.
32 When one of them dies and falls on something, that article, whatever its use, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, cloth, hide or sackcloth. Put it in water; it will be unclean till evening, and then it will be clean.
33 If one of them falls into a clay pot, everything in it will be unclean, and you must break the pot.
34 Any food you are allowed to eat that has come into contact with water from any such pot is unclean, and any liquid that is drunk from such a pot is unclean.
35 Anything that one of their carcasses falls on becomes unclean; an oven or cooking pot must be broken up. They are unclean, and you are to regard them as unclean.
36 A spring, however, or a cistern for collecting water remains clean, but anyone who touches one of these carcasses is unclean.
37 If a carcass falls on any seeds that are to be planted, they remain clean.
38 But if water has been put on the seed and a carcass falls on it, it is unclean for you.
39 “ ‘If an animal that you are allowed to eat dies, anyone who touches its carcass will be unclean till evening.
40 Anyone who eats some of its carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. Anyone who picks up the carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.
41 “ ‘Every creature that moves along the ground is to be regarded as unclean; it is not to be eaten.
42 You are not to eat any creature that moves along the ground, whether it moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet; it is unclean.
43 Do not defile yourselves by any of these creatures. Do not make yourselves unclean by means of them or be made unclean by them.
44 I am the Lord your God; consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am holy. Do not make yourselves unclean by any creature that moves along the ground.
45 I am the Lord, who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.
46 “ ‘These are the regulations concerning animals, birds, every living thing that moves about in the water and every creature that moves along the ground.
47 You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between living creatures that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.’ ”
1 The precise identification of some of the birds, insects and animals in this chapter is uncertain.
2 The identity of many of these birds is uncertain
1 And the LORD spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them,
2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.
3 Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.
4 Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
5 And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
6 And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.
7 And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you.
8 Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you.
9 These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat.
10 And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you:
11 They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination.
12 Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you.
13 And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,
14 And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;
15 Every raven after his kind;
16 And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,
17 And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,
18 And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,
19 And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat.
20 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you.
21 Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth;
22 Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind.
23 But all other flying creeping things, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you.
24 And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even.
25 And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.
26 The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and is not clovenfooted, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean.
27 And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even.
28 And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you.
29 These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,
30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.
31 These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even.
32 And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be , wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed.
33 And every earthen vessel, whereinto any of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it.
34 Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water cometh shall be unclean: and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean.
35 And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falleth shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: for they are unclean, and shall be unclean unto you.
36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean.
37 And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it shall be clean.
38 But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcase fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you.
39 And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even.
40 And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.
41 And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination; it shall not be eaten.
42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination.
43 Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby.
44 For I am the LORD your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.
45 For I am the LORD that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.
46 This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth:
47 To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten.
1 The precise identification of some of the birds, insects and animals in this chapter is uncertain.
2 The identity of many of these birds is uncertain

Food That Is “Clean” and Food That Is Not

1 The Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron. He said to them,
2 “Speak to the people of Israel. Tell them, ‘Many animals live on land. Here are the only ones you can eat.
3 You can eat any animal that has hoofs that are separated completely in two. But it must also chew the cud.
4 “ ‘Some animals only chew the cud. Some only have hoofs that are separated in two. You must not eat those animals. “ ‘Camels chew the cud. But their hoofs are not separated in two. So they are not “clean” for you.
5 “ ‘Rock badgers chew the cud. But their hoofs are not separated in two. So they are not “clean” for you.
6 “ ‘Rabbits chew the cud. But their hoofs are not separated in two. So they are not “clean” for you.
7 “ ‘Pigs have hoofs that are separated completely in two. But they do not chew the cud. So they are not “clean” for you.
8 “ ‘You must not eat the meat of those animals. You must not even touch their dead bodies. They are not “clean” for you.
9 “ ‘Many creatures live in the water of the oceans and streams. You can eat all of those that have fins and scales.
10 “ ‘But be sure to avoid all of the creatures in the oceans or streams that do not have fins and scales. That includes all of those that move together in groups and all of those that do not.
11 Be sure to avoid them. Do not eat their meat. Do not even touch their dead bodies.
12 Be sure to avoid everything that lives in the water that does not have fins and scales.
13 “ ‘Here are the birds you must be sure to avoid. Do not eat them. Be sure to avoid them. “ ‘They include eagles, vultures and black vultures.
14 They include red kites and all kinds of black kites.
15 They include all kinds of ravens.
16 They include horned owls, screech owls, gulls and all kinds of hawks.
17 “ ‘They include little owls, cormorants and great owls.
18 They include white owls, desert owls and ospreys.
19 They also include storks, hoopoes, bats and all kinds of herons.
20 “ ‘Be sure to avoid every flying insect that walks on all fours.
21 But you can eat some creatures that have wings and walk on all fours. Their legs have joints so they can hop on the ground.
22 “ ‘Here are the insects you can eat. You can eat all kinds of locusts, katydids, crickets and grasshoppers.
23 But be sure to avoid every other creature that has wings and four legs.
24 “ ‘You will make yourselves “unclean” if you eat those things. If you touch their dead bodies, you will be “unclean” until evening.
25 If a person picks up one of their dead bodies, he must wash his clothes. He will be “unclean” until evening.
26 “ ‘Suppose an animal has hoofs that are not separated completely in two. Or suppose an animal does not chew the cud. Then those animals are not “clean” for you. If you touch the dead body of any of them, you will not be “clean.”
27 “ ‘Many animals walk on all fours. But those that walk on their paws are not “clean” for you. Anyone who touches their dead bodies will be “unclean” until evening.
28 If he picks up their dead bodies, he must wash his clothes. He will be “unclean” until evening. They are not “clean” for him.
29 “ ‘Many animals move around on the ground. Here are the ones that are not “clean” for you. They include weasels, rats and all kinds of large lizards.
30 They also include geckos, monitor lizards, wall lizards, skinks and chameleons.
31 Those are the animals that move around on the ground that are not “clean” for you. If you touch their dead bodies, you will be “unclean” until evening.
32 “ ‘Suppose one of them dies and falls on something. Then that article will not be “clean.” It does not matter what it is used for. It does not matter whether it is made out of wood, cloth, hide or black cloth. Put it in water. It will be “unclean” until evening. After that, it will be “clean.”
33 “ ‘Suppose one of those animals falls into a clay pot. Then everything that is in the pot will be “unclean.” You must break the pot.
34 Any food that could be eaten but has water on it that came from that pot is not “clean.” And any liquid that could be drunk from it is not “clean.”
35 “ ‘Anything that the dead body of one of those animals falls on becomes “unclean.” If it is an oven or cooking pot, break it. It is “unclean.” And you must consider it “unclean.”
36 “ ‘But a spring or a well for collecting water remains “clean.” That is true even if the dead body of one of those animals falls into it. But anyone who touches the dead body is not “clean.”
37 “ ‘If the dead body falls on any seeds that have not been planted yet, the seeds remain “clean.”
38 But suppose water has already been put on the seeds. And suppose the dead body falls on them. Then they are not “clean” for you.
39 “ ‘Suppose an animal you are allowed to eat dies. If anyone touches its dead body, he will be “unclean” until evening.
40 If he eats part of the dead body, he must wash his clothes. He will be “unclean” until evening. If he picks up the dead body, he must wash his clothes. He will be “unclean” until evening.
41 “ ‘Be sure to avoid every creature that moves around on the ground. Do not eat it.
42 Do not eat any of those creatures. It does not matter whether they move on their bellies. It does not matter whether they walk on all fours or on many feet. Be sure to avoid them.
43 Do not make yourselves “unclean” by eating any of those animals. Do not make yourselves “unclean” because of them. Do not let them make you “unclean.”
44 “ ‘I am the Lord your God. Set yourselves apart. Be holy, because I am holy. Do not make yourselves “unclean” by eating any creatures that move around on the ground.
45 I am the Lord. I brought you up out of Egypt to be your God. So be holy, because I am holy.
46 “ ‘Those are the rules about animals and birds. Those are the rules about every living thing that moves in the water. And those are the rules about every creature that moves around on the ground.
47 You must be able to tell the difference between what is “clean” and what is not. You must also be able to tell the difference between the living creatures that can be eaten and those that can't.’ ”
1 The precise identification of some of the birds, insects and animals in this chapter is uncertain.
2 The identity of many of these birds is uncertain
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